For some medical conditions, it is useful to destroy or weaken malfunctioning cells using radiation. The radioisotope that generates the radiation can be localized in the required organ in the same way it is used for diagnosis – through a radioactive element following its usual biological path, or through the element being attached to a suitable biological compound. In most cases, it is beta radiation which causes the destruction of the damaged cells. This is radionuclide therapy (RNT) or radiotherapy. Short-range radiotherapy is known as brachytherapy, and this is becoming the main means of treatment. Although radiotherapy is less common than diagnostic use of radioactive material in medicine, it is nevertheless widespread, important, and growing. An ideal therapeutic radioisotope is a strong beta emitter with just enough gamma to enable imaging (World Nuclear Organization).

Niowave cryogenically extracts valuable volatile fission fragments from low-enriched fuel and then chemically extracts and purifies select beta-emitters. These isotopes may be attached to a radiopharmaceutical or as stand-alone gases for nuclear medicine therapy.